Unfortunately, fruitful perspective on this process has been blurred by attempts to reconcile recent research findings with Freud's concept of instinctual energies Fisher, 1965. There is considerable evidence Tart, 1965 now that the content of dreaming can be modified by hypnosis, conditioning, learning, and the influence of the therapist, or, in the experimental laboratory situation, by personnel. Many of the elements that make up spontaneous drawings or that make up the imagery or speech in a dream can be traced back to perceptions that the subjects were knowingly or unwittingly exposed to in the experience of the past few days. We use this aid if we feel insecure towards the problem. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology and Social Psychology, 18 2 , 167-180. It is in relation to this problem that concern with social myth assumes importance.
Around the world there are various organizations promoting Adler's orientation towards mental and social well-being. Adlerian Theory Now that we have looked into some of the basics in Freud's theories, let's take a look at Alfred Adler. No significant differences were found between visual and nonvisual stimuli with respect to the incidence of these eye movements Shimazano, Ando, Sakamoto, Tanaka, Eguchi, and Nakamura, 1965. If the person is unprepared for social living he will not continue his path to self-actualization on the socially useful side; instead of confronting his problems he will try to gain distance from them. Barbara Tedlock is one of my favorite authors on the subject, as well as Lee Irwin. Each dream element, however, expresses not only the personal and subjective, but also a historical and social referent which actually exists or did exist. A long-serving member of the group, Adler became president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society eight years later 1910.
In the Jungian theory, the unconscious possesses its own language, the symbolic language, pre-logic, allegoric studied in depth by Piaget afterwards. Associated to the concretistic interpretation is the objective view, or in the level of the object, of the dream. Freud's theories centered on the self, with emphasis on the subconscious. The first type is the ruling type. In this way, the parts of a dream are like the lines in a drawing where each line, each element in the picture, whether it is part of a person or the formation of a cloud or the image of a tree, participates in the total organization of the picture; or as in a poem where the sound, meter, rhythm, as well as the sensations evoked by the words themselves, all make up a single totality of affective experience. He claimed one's personality consists of three aspects: the id, the ego, and the superego. Bonime, a student of Karen Horney and Bernard Robbins, wrote a practical guide 1962 to dream interpretation expressed in an interpersonal framework concerned with values, the growth of self-awareness, and a confrontation with the patient of what he is actually about in his everyday living.
But this is merely another example that the dream reveals more of the dreamer, sometimes, than any other expressions he can make in waking life. Nietzsche, of course, considered the will to power the basic motive of human life. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud viewed the entire human psyche from a sexual perspective Freud, 1911. Telepathic powers were early ascribed to dreams and recently have become the subject of scientific experiment Ullman, 1966. Through this, Adler University fulfills its mission to continue the pioneering work of Alfred Adler by graduating socially responsible practitioners, engaging communities, and advancing social justice.
He felt that if humanity was to survive, it had to change its ways. In the kaleidoscopic presentations of the dream drama, every person, every object, every element, every quality participates in the affective expressiveness of the totality of the particular event or sequence of dreaming. Gender and Sexuality Quite possibly the biggest reason Adler split with Freud, was that Adler rejected the idea that sex was the major influencing factor in one's behavior. White eagerly received Freud's contributions to dream theory and the clinical use of dreams in the second decade of this century. Flavell and Draguns 1957 particularly focused on a historical perspective to microgenesis the sequence of phenomena taking place between the presentation or occurrence of a stimulus and the formation of a stabilized cognitive response. New York: International Universities Press, 1952. Freud Meets Jung: A Centenary Celebration: Sexuality: Hysteria or Complex? Whereas isolated private intelligence may seem 'clever' to the individual concerned but if it conflicts with social needs it is of little value.
There is evidence that Adler may have moved towards abandoning the hypothesis. Adler also believed in a fourth type: the socially useful type. Some people dream that they are naked in the streets, visible in all their marvelousness, which they mostly do not consider so marvelous. This hypnoid state is normally entered into preliminary to sleep. To Adler, dreams were a way to overcompensate for perceived shortcomings in the waking world. Only by considering dreams as one of the expressions of the style of life may an adequate interpretation of them be found.
Adlerian Psychology has had a tremendous effect on Freudian ideas as they are used now, because the neo-Freudians come very close to the neo-Adlerians. From this concept Jung would create his own dream theory, namely the theory of compensation - which will be treated in more detail in the third chapter. Just as children's drawings, play, Rorschach responses, and spontaneous stories show a developmental progress from the early years of verbal communication through childhood and adolescence, so do their reported dreams. Freud argued that every young child is subconsciously sexually attracted to the opposite sex parent. The second stage witnessed the emergence of ambidextrous scholars such as Rivers 1923 , earlier, and Roheim 1952 , Devereux 1957 , and others, more recently, who were knowledgeable in both psychoanalysis and anthropology and who sought and found confirmatory evidence in their field studies, of classical psychoanalytic tenets. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 22 1 , 67-68. In individual psychology, there are four phases of therapy.
This is not to imply the time interval is the exclusively salient feature in the capacity for recall. He also found that the dreams could well be utilized in much the same manner as standard projective data DeMartino, 1954. Alfred Adler, 22 1 , pg. Towards the end of Adler's life, in the mid-1930s, his opinion towards homosexuality began to shift. His emphasis on the importance of feelings of inferiority, the , is recognized as an isolating element which plays a key role in personality development. Bonime, too, eschews Freudian mechanics for a view of dream symbolism as metaphoric referents. Such a person faces difficulties head-on, but is not plunged into despondency and despair by defeat or failure.
They may compensate by working hard to improve in the skills at which they lack, or they may try to become competent at something else, but otherwise retaining their sense of inferiority. Through a reduction or depreciation of a conscious attitude, it works in a compensatory manner too - and can be eminently prospective ibid. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious 1970 p. Markowitz and Seiderman 1963 reported a fascinating study wherein a professional artist made drawings of dreams reported by children. Crossing the boundaries makes recall more difficult, but tapping recall from the level at which the information is introduced may facilitate recall. Youngest children would tend to be overindulged, leading to poor social empathy. A debate between Adler's supporters and Freud's was arranged, but it resulted in Adler, with nine other members of the organization, resigning to form the Society for Free Psychoanalysis in 1911.