Consider if reactive or toxic effluents may be generated by the procedure. Samples should be carried in unbreakable secondary containment. Check the voltage is correct and that the supply can deliver the current required by the equipment the power requirements of the equipment will be shown on its rating plate. Clothing and Protective Apparel Protective clothing should be used when there is significant potential for skin-contact exposure to chemicals. Chemical burns could become more common. Careful technique must be observed to minimize the potential for spills and releases. See , , for more information about transport and shipping of nanomaterials.
Highly toxic chemicals that have a limited shelf life need to be tracked and monitored for deterioration in the storage facility. For example, controls for hood nitrogen or water may be located outside the hood itself but may well be contaminated. Support any equipment in hoods on racks or feet to provide airflow under the equipment. Changing solvents, suppliers, reagent concentration, reaction scale, and materials of construction may bring unintended consequences. The same scenario applies for medication. Perchlorates should be avoided whenever possible.
Health surveys of people working with laboratory animals show that up to 56 percent are affected by animal-related allergies. Welding operators face an array of hazards, including electric shock, fumes and gases, fire and more. Controlled substances chemical Regulation 1996 The Department of Health manages public health related issues involving chemical sale, supply, possession, labeling, storage, transport, disposal etc. Therefore, such liquids should always be handled so as to minimize the creation of flammable vapor concentrations. How many tons of hazardous waste are produced for each person in the U.
Many of the general practices applicable to working with hazardous chemicals are given elsewhere in this volume see. If instructed to sniff a chemical, gently waft the vapors toward your nose using a folded sheet of paper. Physical hazards Research facilities inherently have significant physical hazards present. In general, the storage area for toxic materials should have the following characteristics. Correctness, Dose, Environment 449 Words 2 Pages secure the health, safety and welfare of employees at work. For example, in some cases dusts or vapours can also be hazardous substances. These materials should be used with adequate ventilation and should not be exposed to ignition sources.
Commercial lab coats are fabricated from a variety of materials, such as cotton, polyester, cotton-polyester blends, polyolefin, and polyaramid. Asphyxiation can be caused by high concentrations of even inert gases such as nitrogen. Discard or repair chipped or cracked items. If experiments are to be ongoing over a significant period of time, the hood should be rechecked at least quarterly for proper operation and be equipped with flow-sensing devices that show at a glance or by an audible signal whether they are performing adequately. When should I wear proper personal protective equipment? Use a pre-wetting technique or vacuum equipped with high efficiency filter s instead. Selection of the proper material to deal with the particular hazards present is critical.
Planning should include consultations with colleagues who have experience in handling the substance safely and in protocols of use. Handling the Accidental Release of Hazardous Substances Experiments should always be designed to minimize the possibility of an accidental release of hazardous substances. Take care to remove disposable garments without exposing any individual to toxic materials and dispose of as hazardous waste. Thus the risk of exposure via inhalation presents a risk both to the wearer of latex gloves and to sensitized individuals who may be working nearby. Avoiding Ingestion of Hazardous Chemicals Eating, drinking, smoking, gum chewing, applying cosmetics, and taking medicine in laboratories where hazardous chemicals are used or stored should be strictly prohibited. In addition, emergency response plans must address these substances and their special hazards. The presence or inadvertent addition of water to the hot fluid of a heating bath is an example of such a hazard.
Other important factors to be considered in determining the need for additional safeguards are the likelihood of exposure inherent in the proposed experimental process, the toxicological and physical properties of the chemical substances being used, the concentrations and amounts involved, the duration of exposure, and known toxicological effects. Food, beverages, cups, and other drinking and eating utensils should not be stored in areas where hazardous chemicals are handled or stored. Report any signs of illness immediately to your supervisor. Be sure to review the literature and other sources to fully understand the reactive properties of the reactants and solvents, which may not have been evident at a smaller scale. Disposing of hazardous substances — follow workplace procedures under correct conditions 7.
Procedures for disposal of highly toxic materials should be established before experiments begin, preferably before the chemicals are ordered. Hydrogenation Reactions Hydrogenation reactions pose additional risks because they are often carried out under pressure with a reactive catalyst. In an elevated location, make sure no flammable materials are beneath you, and watch out for other workers below you in order to prevent dropping sparks or spatter on them. Experienced chemists who are interested in participating in such activities and want to use the organization's chemicals and apparatus should submit an activity plan in advance of the event. Maximum quantity limits should be observed. A graduate student was filling the chamber of an excimer laser with fluorine gas. Contact with water should be avoided because sodium reacts violently with water to form hydrogen H 2 with evolution of sufficient heat to cause ignition.
It has a pungent irritating odor, and a time-weighted average exposure of 3 ppm for routine work. Welding leathers are especially recommended when welding out of position, such as applications that require vertical or overhead welding. Hence, only sealed or evacuated equipment should be so cooled. Identify the legislation that relates to the. An interlock should be constructed in such a way that if a problem develops, it places the experiment in a safer mode and will not reset even if the hazardous condition is reversed. Because this is an area of ongoing research, consult trusted sources to ensure that the methods described here are not obsolete, and check for any applicable material-specific guidance. Employment, Ergonomics, Health and safety regulations in the United Kingdom 815 Words 5 Pages connections with adjacent phenomena ibid.