In particular, it is not supposed to tell a story. Once you have completed the final draft of your , use it as a guide for writing your abstract. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. Be sure that those exact phrases appear in your abstract, so that they will turn up at the top of a search result listing. Other Considerations An abstract must be a fully self-contained, capsule description of the paper. The abstract should highlight essential points in order to allow the reader to decide whether or not to read the rest of the report. The abstract should be dense and phrased in a way that allows it to be read alone.
By the way, your notebook should contain all of the information that you need for this section. Authors should tailor their abstracts to the specific requirements of the journal to which they plan to submit their manuscript. Some science fairs want you to discuss what additional research you might want to do based on what you learned. General Formatting Rules Use standard white 8. The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6 th ed. See the examples in the writing portfolio package.
This section should include the importance of your work, the difficulty of the area, and the impact it might have if successful. Specifically, most good computer architecture papers conclude that something is so many percent faster, cheaper, smaller, or otherwise better than something else. The abstract's purpose is to report rather than provide commentary. General intent The purpose of a results section is to present and illustrate your findings. The thesis of a paper introduces the main idea or question, while the abstract works to review the entirety of the paper, including the methods and results. If your results differ from your expectations, explain why that may have happened.
If there is a need to cite references, the sources should be provided in bracket in the abstract. These are typically only 100-200 words. As an author, you should spend time ensuring that it is readable and that it contains a complete description of your research. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. The abstract is the only part of the paper that readers see when they search through electronic databases such as PubMed. As a best option, it is important to follow the instructions to authors to avoid any mistakes a head of abstract and manuscript development.
For this reason, your abstract is an extremely important and powerful representation of your article. This is unfortunate because the reader is interested in the paper because of its findings, and not because of its background. Pay close attention to the purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations mentioned in your paper. Did you use simulation, analytic models, prototype construction, or analysis of field data for an actual product? Get to the point quickly and always use the past tense because you are reporting on a study that has been completed. If you are writing the abstract for a class, you might want to check with your instructor to see if he or she has a specific word count in mind.
Like the rest of the paper, the pages of the abstract should be double-spaced and typed in Times New Roman, 12 pt. If you did your own work, include a description of it here. After all, how can you summarize something that is not yet written? You might comment on its suitability from a theoretical point of view as well as indicate practical reasons for using it. Writing Commons, , helps students improve their writing, critical thinking, and information literacy. Remember the Rule of 3, i.
Avoid using the first person. This, definitely, made most journals to expunge the inclusion of citations and other unnecessary indices that may assist in the minimization of the number of words, to serve the required purpose for abstract. Know which type of abstract you need to write. Keep the needs of your readers in mind as you write the abstract. Check with your professor to see which type of abstract is required for your assignment. I just came across an abstract by two noted researchers in my field that had 5 references. By the end of the week or by the end of the month , many students are broke.
Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. In the simplest of terms, an abstract is a summary of your paper. She earned her PhD in English from the University of Georgia in 2015. Use a such as Edubirdie. Science Buddies staff added references and reformatted the bibliography at a later date; consequently, the page and volume references are fictitious for some of the sources. Most journals provide clear instructions to authors on the formatting and contents of different parts of the manuscript.